These questions are based on exam board Specimen Papers and Past Papers to date. In the real exam the questions will cover ALL the Core Studies, not just the psychology of individual differences studies. You will have 2 hours in the exam to answer these questions - you should spend an hour on Section A and half an hour each on Sections B and C.
1 Rosenhan conducted a study where pseudopatients sought treatment in mental hospitals.
(a) Outline one way in which the hospital staff were treated unethically. 
(b) Suggest what might have been done to make the study more ethical and the effect this might have had on the results. 
2 Griffiths suggested that regular fruit machine gamblers would be more irrational than non-regular gamblers.
(a) Explain why he expected to find this difference. 
(b) Identify one piece of evidence from the study that shows that regular gamblers are more irrational than non-regular gamblers. 
3 In the study on Multiple Personality Disorder, Thigpen & Cleckley used psychometric tests.
(a) Identify two tests completed by Eve. 
(b) Why was it necessary for an independent analyst to check the tests carried out by Eve? 
4 Give one similarity and one difference between the study on abnormality by Thigpen & Cleckley and the study by Rosenhan. 
5 From the study by Rosenhan on psychiatric misdiagnoses, what were the independent variables? 
6 Identify one strength and one weakness of the case study method, as used by Thigpen & Cleckley. 
7 When he studied gamblers, Griffiths recorded participants thinking aloud while they played fruit machines.
(a) Give one example of a rational verbalisation. 
(b) Give one example of an irrational verbalisation. 
8 (a) Explain what psychologists mean by individual differences. 
(b) Outline one way in which studying individual differences can be controversial. 
9 In the study on gambling, Griffiths tried to make the design ecologically valid..
(a) Explain what is meant by "ecologically valid". 
(b) Describe one aspect of Griffiths' design that tried to be ecologically valid. 
10 In the study by Rosenhan (sane in insane places):
(a) Describe one example of how the hospital staff dealt with requests for information from the pseudopatients. 
(b) Outline two effects this had on the pseudopatients. 
11 In Thigpen & Cleckley's study, the researchers concluded that Eve had several personalities. Outline one piece of evidence that supports this conclusion and one piece of evidence that goes against it. 
12 All of the individual differences studies you have studied looked at abnormal behaviour.
(a) Outline one advantage of studying abnormality. 
(b) Outline one disadvantage of studying abnormality. 
13 Rosenhan claimed "we cannot tell the sane from the insane in mental hospitals".
(a) Identify two features of the mental hospitals that made it hard for the staff to tell that the pseudopatients were sane. 
(b) Explain what Rosenhan means by "the stickiness of labels". 
14 In the study by Griffiths on gambling, explain how the sample was collected and give two limitations of this sample. 
15 Thigpen & Cleckley say they may have been partly responsible for the appearance of Jane.
(a) Explain how Jane might have come about. 
(b) Outline what the doctors decided to do to resolve the multiple personalities. 
16. Choose one of the core studies below:
Griffiths, M.D. (1994) The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling
Rosenhan, D. (1973) On being sane in insane places
and answer the following questions:
(a) What was the aim of your chosen study? 
(b) Describe the data collected in your chosen study and give one strength of collecting data of this kind. 
(c) Describe how behaviour was measured in your chosen study. 
(d) Give one advantage and one disadvantage of observational studies. 
(e) Outline the results of your study. 
(f) Suggest two changes that could be made to this study and outline what impact these changes might have on the results. 
17. (a) Explain what is meant by ethnocentrism, using examples from the study by Griffiths. 
(b) Discuss the strengths and limitations of ethnocentric research as opposed to cross-cultural studies, with reference to the study by Griffiths. 
(c) Describe one similarity and one difference between the study by Griffiths and any other ethnocentric study. 
18. (a) Outline one assumption of the individual differences approach in psychology. 
(b) Describe how the individual differences approach could explain abnormality. 
(c) Describe one similarity and one difference between Thigpen & Cleckley’s study and any other individual differences study. 
(d) Discuss the strengths and limitations of the individual differences approach using examples from Thigpen & Cleckley’s study.